The Crimean War October 1853 – February 1856 was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.
British historian A.J.P. Taylor argues that:
in some sense the Crimean war was predestined and had deep-seated causes. Neither Nicholas of Russia nor Napoleon III of France nor the British government could retreat in the conflict for prestige once it was launched.
Nicholas needed a subservient Turkey for the sake of Russian security; Napoleon needed success for the sake of his domestic position; the British government needed an independent Turkey for the security of the Eastern Mediterranean....Mutual fear, not mutual aggression, caused the Crimean war